LoginResistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health
The IRAC Mode of Action Classification
The definitive, global scheme on the target sites of acaricides and insecticides.
The IRAC Mode of Action (MoA) classification provides growers, advisors, extension staff, consultants and crop protection professionals with a guide to the selection of acaricides or insecticides for use in an effective and sustainable acaricide or insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy.
See the list of references describing established target site mutations.
Bind to the acetylcholine site on nAChRs, causing a range of symptoms from hyper-excitation to lethargy and paralysis. Acetylcholine is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the insect central nervous system.
Bind to and disrupt the gating of Nan-Iav TRPV (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid) channel complexes in chrodotonal stretch receptor organs, which are critical for the senses of hearing, gravity, balance, acceleration, proprioception and kinesthesia. This disrupts feeding and other behaviors in target insects.
29 Chordotonal Organ Modulators - undefined target site
Disrupt the function of chrodotonal stretch receptor organs, which are critical for the senses of hearing, gravity, balance, acceleration, proprioception and kinesthesia. This disrupts feeding and other behaviors in target insects. In contrast to Group 9, Group 29 insecticides do not bind to the Nan-lav TRPV channel complex.
A baculovirus-unique Per os Infectivity Factor (PIF) protein complex on the virus promotes host-specific infection by binding to PIF targets on midgut cells that are unknown but believed to be unique for each baculovirus type. Infection is ultimately lethal.
32 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Allosteric Modulators - Site II
Allosterically activate nAChRs (at a site distinct from Group 5 - Site I), causing hyperexcitation of the nervous system. Acetylcholine is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the insect central nervous system.
Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. This informs the symptomology, speed of action and other properties of the actives therein and not for any resistance management purpose. Rotations for resistance management should be based only on the numbered mode of action groups.
Nerve & Muscle
Most current insecticides act on nerve and muscle targets. Insecticides that act on these targets are generally fast acting.
Insect development is controlled by juvenile hormone and ecdysone, by directly perturbing cuticle formation/deposition or lipid biosynthesis. Such insect growth regulators are generally slow to moderately slow acting.
Several insecticides are known to interfere with mitochondrial respiration by the inhibition of electron transport and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Such insecticides are generally fast to moderately fast acting.
Lepidopteran-specific microbial toxins that are sprayed or expressed in transgenic crop varieties.
Unknown or Non-Specific
Several insecticides are known to affect less well-described target-sites or functions, or to act non-specifically on multiple targets.
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