The IRAC Mode of Action Working Group have developed a set of 74 slides as a MoA tutorial outlining the major mechanisms of insecticide resistance and explaining with graphics, MoA by targeted physiology affected with the broad categories of: Nerve and Muscle, Growth and Development, Respiration, Midgut and Unknown or Non-specific target sites or functions.
In a situation in which running real-world experiments is impractical (or even impossible), computer simulations offer a powerful solution to understand complex problems. This is exactly the case of resistance-evolution prediction: Although fast from an evolutionary perspective, the time and spatial scales involved in this process are simply too large to be dealt with experimentally. The underlying evolutionary processes of resistance development are relatively well known, however. With this knowledge, researchers can build mathematical models to describe and mimic the actual systems. These models can also be calibrated based on real-world cases that have already occurred, improving their precision and accuracy. Read the full paper
On the 4th and 5th of February a meeting of IRAC India was held in Delhi. In addition to the members of the IRAC India team there was active participation from IRAC International, IRAC Asia and Croplife India. The goals of the workshop were to establish working priorities for IRAC India in both the short term and the long term, ensuring that prioritised insecticide resistance issues are being addressed and that IRAC India is providing key technical information to support the implementation of insecticide resistance management.
The IRAC India team agreed that development of supporting materials for resistance management in rice and cotton as well as specifically for the invasive pest fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) were the key priorities and therefore an action plan was developed. The inclusion of mode of action icons on product labels and development of effective communication pathways to growers and retailers were also identified as key priorities that the team will work upon.
On the second day the group were joined by representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmer Welfare, the Farmers’ Federation, Indian Agricultural Research Institute and Central Institute for Cotton Research to gain further insights on how to support and communicate the implementation of insecticide resistance management.
The new poster from the IRAC Sucking Pest WG are titled “IRM for sustainable whitefly control with special reference to Bemisia tabaci” and “Major mechanisms of insecticide resistance in green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer”. These can be viewed via the the individual website Pest Pages, the Sucking Pest WG Team Page or the pdf files can be downloaded directly using the links on the poster titles above.
In South Africa, it will be critically important to have a harmonised approach to IRM for FAW across the industry and across technologies. This approach should combine a clear and simple structured refuge policy which does not confuse growers between the requirements for FAW and maize stalk borers in South Africa, and which enables a high grower compliance. There are several commercialised Bt-products in South Africa which are very similar. This approach is in the best interests of the seed industry, growers and South African consumers. The new guidelines have now been published on the IRAC website.
Following a first registration in Australia, afidopyropen from BASF has been added to the IRAC MoA Classification Scheme as Group 9D. Previously it was included in the Appendix awaiting registration. The product is intended for the control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), currant lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) and cotton/melon aphid (Aphis gossypii); and for the suppression of silverleaf whitefly in brassica vegetables, celery, cucurbits, fruiting and leafy vegetables (including brassica leafy vegetables), parsley, potato, sweet potato, ginger and cotton. The product is also intended for the control of aphids in ornamentals.
The initial objectives of the team will be to investigate the resistance risk of nematicides and to develop a mode of action classification scheme similar to that available for insecticides and acaricides. Information will be posted on the website under Nematode Team.