Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Melon & Cotton Aphid

Aphis gossypii

Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a destructive pest of numerous crops worldwide. This sap-sucking insect affects plants via direct feeding and indirectly via plant viral disease transmission (more than 50 plant pathogenic viruses known). It has a very wide host range with at least 700 host plants being known world-wide. It can seriously affect most cucurbit and solanaceous vegetable crops as well as leafy vegetables, legumes, potato, ornamentals, stone fruits, oil seed rape, citrus, cotton or many other important crops.

It has a short generation time and high fecundity that result in an enormous reproductive potential. The adults and nymphs of A. gossypii feed on the underside of leaves or on the growing tips of shoots, sucking juices from the plant. The foliage may become chlorotic and die prematurely. There is often a great deal of leaf curling and distortion which hinders efficient photosynthesis. Honeydew is excreted by the aphids and this allows sooty moulds to grow, resulting in a decrease in the quantity and quality of the produce. The aphids are difficult to control because of the high propagation rate and its ability to evolve resistance to many insecticide classes.

Melon & Cotton Aphid resistance profile

The control of cotton aphids typically rely on chemical insecticides for a long time. Consequently, cotton aphids have evolved resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids. Both metabolic and target site mutations can occur in some populations resulting resistance to multiple insecticide classes. Below table shows the major resistance mechanisms and the impacted chemical classes.

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Carbamates (1A) Metabolic-Elevated level of Carboxylesterase
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Organophosphates (1B) Metabolic-Elevated level of Carboxylesterase
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Metabolic-Elevated level of Carboxylesterase
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Carbamates (1A) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Organophosphates (1B) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Cyclodiene organochlorines (2A) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) (2B) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Worldwide Neonicotinoids (4A) Metabolic- Elevated level of Monoxigenase P450
Aphis gossypii Non specified Carbamates (1A) Target site - S431F, A302S
Aphis gossypii Non specified Organophosphates (1B) Target site - F139L, A302S
Aphis gossypii Non specified Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Target site- L1014F, M918L
Aphis gossypii South-East Asia Neonicotinoids (4A) Target site - R81T
Aphis gossypii South-East Asia Sulfoximines (4C) Target site - R81T
Aphis gossypii South-Korea, USA Flonicamid (29) Non specified

Key melon & cotton aphid resources

References

Title Year Author(s) Publisher
The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides Vol. 121, pp. 78-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.04.004 2015 Bass C, Denholm I, Williamson MS, Nauen R Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Two mutations in nAChR beta subunit is associated with imidacloprid resistance in the Aphis gossypii Vol. 18 (2), pp. 291-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.aspen.2015.01.010 2015 Kim JL, Kwon M, Kim G-H, KIm SY, Lee SH Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology
Association between the R81T mutation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit of Aphis gossypii and the differential resistance to acetamiprid and imidacloprid Vol. 40 (1), pp. 25-31 2015 Hirata K, Kiyota R, Matsuura A, Toda S, Yamamoto A, Iwasa T Journal of Pesticide Science
Regional susceptibilities to 12 insecticides of melon and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and a point mutation associated with imidacloprid resistance Vol. 55, pp. 91-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2013.09.010 2014 Koo H-N, An J-J, Park S-E, Kim J-L, Kim G-H Crop Protection
Cotton Aphid (Heteroptera: Aphididae) Susceptibility to Commercial and Experimental Insecticides in the Southern United States Vol. 106 (3), pp. 1430-9 2013 Gore J, Cook DR, Catchot A, Leonard BR, Stewart SD, Lorenz G, Kerns D Journal of Economic Entomology
The mutation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit may confer resistance to imidacloprid in Aphis gossypii (Glover) ISSN: 1459-0263Y, Vol. 10 (2), pp 1227-1230 2012 Shi X-G, Zhu Y-K, Xia X-M, Qiao K, Wang H-Y, Wang K-Y Food, Agriculture and Environment
Biochemical characterization of acetylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 and cross-resistance in an omethoate-resistant strain of Aphis gossypii Glover Vol. 31 (1), pp. 15-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2011.09.014 2012 Shang Q, Pan Y, Fang K, Xi J, Brennan JA Crop Protection
The mutation in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β1 subunit may confer resistance to imidacloprid in Aphis gossypii (Glover) ISSN: 1459-0263Y, Vol. 10 (2), pp 1227-1230 2012 Shi X-G, Zhu Y-K, Xia X-M, Qiao K, Wang H-Y, Wang K-Y Food, Agriculture and Environment
Neonicotinoid resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover (Aphididae: Hemiptera) from Australian cotton Vol. 50 (1), pp. 93-98, DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.2010.00788.x 2011 Herron GA, Wilson LJ Australian Journal of Entomology
Identification of mutations conferring insecticide-insensitive AChE in the cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover Vol. 13(5):555-61, DOI: 10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004.00517.x 2004 Andrews MC, Callaghan A, Field LM, Williamson MS, Moores GD Insect Molecular Biology
Two amino acid substitutions in acetylcholinesterase associated with pirimicarb and organophosphorous insecticide resistance in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) Vol. 13 (5), pp 549-553, DOI: 10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004.00513.x 2004 Toda S, Komazaki S, Tomita T, Kono Y Insect Molecular Biology
Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Method for adult aphids. FAO method 17 FAO 27 (2), pp. 2932 1979 Anon. Plant Protection Bulletin

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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