Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Currant-lettuce aphid

Nasonovia ribisnigri

The lettuce aphid is a major pest of lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) and Ribes spp. in Europe where it originates. In recent years this insect has spread to other continents (North and South America, Asia and Australia), where eventually causes major problems for growers. In general the direct damage is limited on lettuces, leaf curl and sometimes stunting of plants. On lettuce and other salad crops, leaf curl, stunting and sometimes dead hearts. Honeydew production, and subsequent sooty mould growth, contributes to cosmetic damage. The aphid is a vector of gooseberry veinbanding disease, cauliflower and cucumber mosaic virus (Blackman & Eastop 2000).

During summer N. ribisnigri reproduces asexually on lettuce and related species. In autumn, males mate with females who lay overwintering cold-resistant eggs on the primary hosts (Ribes spp.). In the spring the eggs hatch and nymphs colonise shoots of the winter host before migrating to lettuce once again.

The lettuce aphid is hard to control on lettuce crops because it lives deep inside lettuce hearts where few insecticides can penetrate. In addition to this protection the aphid developped resistance to several insecticides. Because of the likely resistance breeding efforts are ongoing to develop aphid resistant varieties of lettuce.

Currant-lettuce aphid resistance profile

In Europe, lettuce aphid has shown varying levels of resistance to organophosphates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids (Barber et al. 1999). Resistance to pirimicarb was shown to be mainly due to a decreased sensitivity of the target acetylcholinesterase; this modification conferred also, resistance to propoxur but not to methomyl and the two tested organophosphates (acephate and paraoxon). Endosulfan resistance was associated with a moderate level of resistance to dieldrin, and resistance to both insecticides was due, in part, to increased detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST)

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Nasonovia ribisnigri England, France, Spain, New Zealand Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Elevated glutathione S-transferases
Nasonovia ribisnigri England, France, Spain Organophosphates (1B) Elevated glutathione S-transferases
Nasonovia ribisnigri France Cyclodiene organochlorines (2A) Elevated glutathione S-transferases
Nasonovia ribisnigri England, France, Spain, New Zealand Carbamates (1A) Elevated glutathione S-transferases

Key currant-lettuce aphid resources

References

Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Insecticide resistance in the currant–lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the UK Vol. 89 (1), doi.org/10.1017/S0007485399000036 2007 Barber MD, Moores GD, Tatchell GM, Vice WE Bulletin of Entomological Research
The impact of insecticide resistance in the currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on pest management in lettuce Vol. 6(4) pp 295-309, DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9555.2004.00226.x 2004 Kift NB, Mead A, Reynolds K, Sime S, Barber MD, Denholm I, Tatchell GM Agricultural and Forest Entomology
Testing for pesticide resistance in lettuce aphid Vol. 57, pp 239-243 2004 Workman PJ, Stufkens MAW, Martin NA, Butler RC New Zealand Plant Protection Society
Aphids on the World's Crops: An Identification and Information Guide, 2nd Edition ISBN: 978-0-471-85191-2 2000 Blackman RL, Eastop VF Wiley
Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) from France Vol. 29(4):385-391, DOI: 10.1016/S0965-1748(99)00014-4 1999 Rufingier C, Pasteur N, Lagnel J, Martin C, Navajas M Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Resistance of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to five insecticides 90(6) 1445-1449, doi.org/10.1093/jee/90.6.1445 1997 Rufingier C, Schoen L, Martin C, Pasteur N Journal of Economic Entomology
Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Method for adult aphids. FAO method 17 FAO 27 (2), pp. 2932 1979 Anon. Plant Protection Bulletin
Lettuce aphid resistance management and prevention strategy http://resistance.nzpps.org/ Stufkens MAW, Walker GP, Martin NA New Zealand Plant Protection Society

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

We use anonymous data in cookies to understand website usage. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.