Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Brown planthopper

Nilaparvata lugens

Nilaparvata lugens adults occur in macropterous (long-winged) and brachypterous (short-winged) forms. The macropterous form is about 3.5 – 4.5 mm in length. The body is brown, and the wings are transparent, with very conspicuous veins. Young nymphs are white, but they gradually become darker in older instars.

Both nymphs and adults penetrate the tissues of their rice host plants with their piercing-sucking mouthparts in order to ingest phloem-sap. Loss of nutrients and obstruction of vessels cause yellowing of leaves. Later, the plants wilt, gradually drying up and eventually dying off. In addition to the direct damage it causes, N. lugens is an important vector of rice grassy stunt virus and rice ragged stunt virus and all stages excrete honeydew, thus promoting the growth of sooty mold.

Macropterous females migrate into rice fields shortly after transplanting, laying groups of 5-15 eggs into the sheaths or midribs of leaves. The first instar nymphs hatch after 5-9 days; they molt five times during a period of 2-3 weeks. Initially, most of them develop into brachypterous adults: but as population density increases, or if food becomes scarce, the proportion developing into the macropterous form increases. During their adult lifespan of 10-30 days, macropterous females each produce about 100 eggs, brachypterous females 300 to more than 700. In the tropics, N. lugens is active all year round, and produces 3-6 generations per crop. It is not able to overwinter in temperate regions, so it migrates into these areas in the spring, often after traveling long distances.

Brown planthopper resistance profile

Insecticide resistance has been recorded in N. lugens since the early  1960‘s, when organophospahte, carbamate and cyclodiene organochlorine insecticides were the main methods of chemical control.  Although further insecticide chemistry has been introduced to control hoppers, the importance of rice as a staple food crop and the reliance on insecticides for the control of insect pests has seen the continued evolution of insecticide resistance. The most recent developments has seen populations develop resistance to neonicotinoid and phenylpyrazole insecticides. At the time of writing there is no evidence of a common cross-resistance resistance between chemical classes of insecticide, however there is evidence that individual hoppers may exhibit multiple mechanisms of resistance to one or more insecticide modes of action. Currently pymetrozine is the only insecticide which is registered for rice hopper control, with no recorded cases of resistance reported

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Nilaparvata lugens China Neonicotinoids (4A) Single point mutation in two nAChR sub-units (Nlα1 and Nlα3 at Y151S conserved position)
Nilaparvata lugens Asia Neonicotinoids (4A) Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (metabolic)
Nilaparvata lugens China Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (metabolic)
Nilaparvata lugens South and East Asia Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) (2B) Metabolic
Nilaparvata lugens India, Vietnam, other Asian countries Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles) (2B) A301S mutation in the RDL GABA-gated chloride channel
Nilaparvata lugens Asia Organophosphates (1B) Altered AChE (metabolic)
Nilaparvata lugens China Buprofezin (16) Metabolic

Key brown planthopper resources

References

Title Year Author(s) Publisher
The evolution of insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) of China in the period 2012–2016 Report 8, Article 4589. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22906-5 2018 Wu S-F, Zheng B, Zheng C, Mu X-C, Zhang Y, Hu J, Gao C-F, Shen J-L Scientific Reports
Metabolic resistance in Nilaparvata lugens to etofenprox, a non-ester pyrethroid insecticide Vol. 136, pp. 23-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2016.08.009 2017 Sun H, Yang B, Zhang Y, Liu Z Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Influence of the RDL A301S mutation in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens on the activity of phenylpyrazole insecticides DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2017.01.007 2017 Garrood WT, Zimmer CT, Gutbrod O, Lüke B, Williamson MS, Bass C, Nauen R, Davies TGE Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Field-evolved resistance to imidacloprid and ethiprole in populations of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens collected from across South and East Asia Vol. 72(1):140-9. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3980. 2015 Garrood WT, Zimmer CT, Gorman K, Bass C, Davies TGE Pest Management Science
The global status of insect resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides Vol. 121, pp. 78-87. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.04.004 2015 Bass C, Denholm I, Williamson MS, Nauen R Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Imidacloprid-induced transference effect on some elements in rice plants and the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vol. 18 (3) pp. 289-297, DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01352.x 2010 Azzam S, Yang F, Wu J-C, Yang G-Q Insect Science
Biochemical studies on malathion resistance, inheritance and association of carboxylesterase activity in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens complex in Peninsular Malaysia Vol. 17 (6) pp. 517-526, DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01331.x 2010 Latif MA, Omar MY, Tan SG, Siraj SS, Ismail AR Insect Science
Imidacloprid resistance and its mechanisms in field populations of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål in China Vol. 94 (1) pp36-42 2009 Wen Y, Liu Z, Bao H, Han Z Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dynamics of imidacloprid resistance and cross‐resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Vol. 131 (1), pp. 20-29. DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2009.00827.x 2009 Wang YH, Wu SG, Zhu YC, Chen J, Liu FY, Zao XP, Wang Q, Li Z, Bo XP, Shen JL Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) Vol. 64 (10) pp. 1050-1056, DOI: 10.1002/ps.1606 2008 Wang Y, Gao C, Xu Z, Zhu YC, Zhang J, Li W, Dai D, Lin Y, Zhou W, Shen J Pest Management Science
Molecular characterization of the amplified carboxylesterase gene associated with organophosphorus insecticide resistance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Vol. 9 (6), pp. 647-653. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2583.2000.00229.x 2008 Small GJ, Hemingway J Insect Molecular Biology
Neonicotinoid resistance in rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Vol. 64 (11), pp 1122-5. DOI: 10.1002/ps.1635 2008 Gorman K, Liu Z, Denholm I, Brüggen KU, Nauen R Pest Management Science
Susceptibility to neonicotinoids and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) Vol. 64 (12) pp. 1278-1284, DOI: 10.1002/ps.1629 2008 Wang Y, Chen J, Zhu YC, Ma C, Huang Y, Shen J Pest Management Science
A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring target-site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper) Vol. 102 (24), pp. 8420-8425 2005 Liu Z, Williamson MS, Lansdell SJ, Denholm I, Han Z, Millar N PNAS
A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mutation conferring target-site resistance to imidacloprid in Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper) Vol. 102 (24), pp. 8420-8425 2005 Liu Z, Williamson MS, Lansdell SJ, Denholm I, Han Z, Millar N PNAS
Selection for imidacloprid resistance in Nilaparvata lugens: cross-resistance patterns and possible mechanisms. Vol. 59 (12), pp. 1355-9. 2003 Zewen L, Zhaojun H, Yinchang W, Lingchun Z, Hongwei Z, Chengjun L Pest Management Science
Altered acetylcholinesterase as a resistance mechanism in the brown planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae), Nilaparvata lugens Stål Vol. 37 (1), pp.37-41. DOI: 10.1303/aez.2002.37 2002 YOO J-K, Lee S-W, Ahn Y-J, Nagata T, Shono T Applied Entomology and Zoology

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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