Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health

Twospotted Spider Mite

Tetranychus urticae

T. urticae is one of the most economically important pests in a wide range of outdoor and protected crops worldwide. T. urticae uses its mouthparts to penetrate plant cells, notably on the undersides of leaves, and ingests their contents. Each minute 1-2 dozen cells can be destroyed this way. The first visible symptoms are small whitish speckles, mainly around the midrib and larger veins. When these spots merge, the empty cells give areas of the leaf a whitish or silvery-transparent appearance.

Due to its short life cycle, abundant progeny and arrhenotokous reproduction, T. urticae is able to develop resistance to acaricides very rapidly. As a result it is considered one of the “most resistant species” in terms of the total number of pesticides to which populations have become resistant, and its control has become problematic in many areas worldwide.

Twospotted Spider Mite resistance profile

Known resistances:

Species Distribution Chemical class Mechanisms
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) Target site point mutation (main)
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Pyrethroids-Pyrethrins (3A) P450 monooxygenase (secondary)
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Clofentezine-Hexythiazox-Diflovidazin (10A) cytochrome P450 and esterase
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Acequinocyl (20B) Esterases (but probably not GST and P450 enzymes)
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide METI acaricides and insecticides (21A) Oxidative metabolsim (MFOs)
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Carbamates (1A) Metabolic: Esterases
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Organophosphates (1B) AChE point mutations
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Avermectins-Milbemycins (6) Metabolic: Glutamate S Trans-ferase (GST) inhibition
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Avermectins-Milbemycins (6) Target site: point mutations on GluCl1 and GluCl3 channels
Tetranychus urticae Worldwide Organotin miticides (12B) Oligomycin-sensitive Mg ATPase, Esterase isozymes, Oxidases
Tetranychus urticae n/a Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives (23) Oxidative metabolism possible but field resistance not validated
Tetranychus urticae Australia, USA Amitraz (19) P450 cytochrome monooxygenase, Modified target site.

Key twospotted spider mite resources

References

Title Year Author(s) Publisher
Mechanisms of resistance to three mite growth inhibitors of Tetranychus urticae in hops Vol. 108 (1), pp. 23-24. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485317000414 2018 Adesanya AW, Morales MA, Walsh DB, Lavine LC Bulletin of Entomological Research
Functional characterization of glutathione S-transferases associated with insecticide resistance in Tetranychus urticae Vol. 121, pp. 53-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.01.009 2015 Pavlidi N, Tseliou V, Riga M, Nauen R, Van Leeuwen T, Labrou NE, Vontas J Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Acequinocyl resistance in Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae): inheritance, synergists, cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanisms Vol. 40 (6), pp.428-436. DOI: 10.1080/01647954.2014.944932 2014 Salman SY, Sarıtaş E International Journal of Acarology
Global distribution and origin of target site insecticide resistance mutations in Tetranychus urticae Vol. 48, pp 17-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2014.02.006 2014 Llias A, Vontas J, Tsagkarakou A Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene family of Tetranychus urticae: implications for acaricide toxicology and a novel mutation associated with abamectin resistance Vol. 42(7):455-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2012.03.002 2012 Dermauw W, Ilias A, Riga M, Tsagkarakou A, Grbić M, Tirry L, Van Leeuwen T, Vontas J Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Chlorpyrifos resistance is associated with mutation and amplification of the acetylcholinesterase-1 gene in the tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Vol. 104 (2) pp. 143-149 2012 Carvalho R, Yang Y, Field LM, Gorman K, Moores G, Williamson MS, Bass C Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
The cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel gene family of Tetranychus urticae: implications for acaricide toxicology and a novel mutation associated with abamectin resistance Vol. 42(7):455-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2012.03.002 2012 Dermauw W, Ilias A, Riga M, Tsagkarakou A, Grbić M, Tirry L, Van Leeuwen T, Vontas J Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Pyrethroid resistance in the tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi, is associated with mutation of the para-type sodium channel Vol. 67 (8), pp. 891-897. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2145. 2011 Nyoni BN, Gorman K, Mzilahowa T, Williamson MS, Navajas M, Field LM, Bass C Pest Management Science
Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review. Vol. 40(8):563-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2010.05.008 2010 Van Leeuwen T, Vontas J, Tsagkarakou A, Dermauw W, Tirry L Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates Vol. 66 (2), pp. 220-228, DO: 10.1002/ps.1884 2010 Khajehali J, Van Leeuwen T, Grispou M, Morou E, Alout H, Weill M, Tirry L, Vontas J, Tsagkarakou A Pest Management Science
Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari:Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates Vol. 66 (2), pp. 220-228, DO: 10.1002/ps.1884 2010 Khajehali J, Van Leeuwen T, Grispou M, Morou E, Alout H, Weill M, Tirry L, Vontas J, Tsagkarakou A Pest Management Science
Genetic and biochemical analysis of a laboratory‐selected spirodiclofen‐resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Vol. 65 (4), pp. 358-366. DOI: 10.1002/ps.1698 2009 Pottelberge SV, Van Leeuwen T, Khajehali J, Tirry L Pest Management Science
Accumulation of acaricide resistance mechanisms in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) populations from New Caledonia Island Vol. 147 (3-4), pp. 276-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.05.003 2007 Chevillon C, Ducornez S, de Meeûsa T, Koffi BB, Gaïab H, Delathièrec J-M, Barré N Veterinary Parasitology
Acaricide toxicity and resistance in larvae of different strains of Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae) Vol. 57 (3) pp. 253-261. doi.org/10.1002/ps.280 DO 2001 Nauen R, Stumpf N, Elbert A, Zebitz CPW, Kraus W Pest Management Science
Cross-Resistance, Inheritance, and Biochemistry of Mitochondrial Electron Transport Inhibitor-Acaricide Resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Vol. 94 (6), pp. 1577-1583. DOI: 10.1603/0022-0493-94.6.1577 2001 Stumpf N, Nauen R Journal of Economic Entomology
Resistance to Organophosphorus Compounds in the Two-spotted Spider Mite: Two Different Mechanisms of Resistance Vol 202, pp. 319-320 1964 Voss G, Matsumura F Nature

The information provided is based on literature reviews and as such IRAC cannot guarantee or be held accountable for the accuracy of the reports.

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