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The IRAC Mode of Action Classification
The definitive, global authority on the target site of insecticides.
The IRAC Mode of Action (MoA) Classification is the basis of MoA labelling of insecticides worldwide. It is an essential tool for the development and delivery of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies around the world.
Bind to the acetylcholine site on nAChRs, causing a range of symptoms from hyper-excitation to lethargy and paralysis. Acetylcholine is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the insect central nervous system.
Bind to and disrupt the gating of Nan-Iav TRPV (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid) channel complexes in chrodotonal stretch receptor organs, which are critical for the senses of hearing, gravity, balance, acceleration, proprioception and kinesthesia. This disrupts feeding and other behaviors in target insects.
Bpyridine azomethine derivatives
10 Mite growth inhibitors
Incompletely defined MoA leading to growth inhibition
AClofentezine, Diflovidazin, Hexythiazox
Clofentezine, Diflovidazin, Hexythiazox
11 Microbial disruptors of insect midgut membranes
Protein toxins that bind to receptors on the midgut membrane and induce pore formation, resulting in ionic imbalance and septicemia.
ABacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce
B.t. var. israelensis, B.t. var. aizawai, B.t. var. kurstaki, B.t. var. tenebrionensis
12 Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase
Inhibit the enzyme that synthesizes ATP.
Azocyclotin, Cyhexatin, Fenbutatin oxide
13 Uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient
Protonophores that short-circuit the mitochondrial proton gradient so that ATP can not be synthesized.
29 Chordotonal Organ Modulators - undefined target site
Disrupt the function of chrodotonal stretch receptor organs, which are critical for the senses of hearing, gravity, balance, acceleration, proprioception and kinesthesia. This disrupts feeding and other behaviors in target insects. In contrast to Group 9, Group 29 insecticides do not bind to the Nan-lav TRPV channel complex.
UN Compounds of unknown or uncertain MoA
GS-omega/kappa HXTX-Hv1a peptide
GS-omega/kappa HXTX-Hv1a peptide
Modes of action are colour-coded according to the physiological functions affected. This informs the symptomology, speed of action and other properties of the actives therein and not for any resistance management purpose. Rotations for resistance management should be based only on the numbered mode of action groups.
Nerve & Muscle Most current insecticides act on nerve and muscle targets. Insecticides that act on these targets are generally fast acting.
Growth Insect development is controlled by juvenile hormone and ecdysone, by directly perturbing cuticle formation/deposition or lipid biosynthesis. Such insect growth regulators are generally slow to moderately slow acting.
Respiration Several insecticides are known to interfere with mitochondrial respiration by the inhibition of electron transport and/or oxidative phosphorylation. Such insecticides are generally fast to moderately fast acting.
Midgut Lepidopteran-specific microbial toxins that are sprayed or expressed in transgenic crop varieties.
Unknown or Non-Specific Several insecticides are known to affect less well-described target-sites or functions, or to act non-specifically on multiple targets.